the wine
Franciacorta

the land
Franciacorta

Disciplinary

Wine production specification for denomination of controlled and guaranteed origin (D.O.C.G.) "Franciacorta"

Approved DOC with DPR 21.07.1967
Approved DOCG with DM
Error correction
Modified with DM 02.09.1996
Modified with DM 07.04.2004
Modified with DM 25.06.2008br> Modified with DM 08.09.2008
Modified with DM 13.10.2010
Modified with DM 31.03.2011
Modified with DM 30.11.2011


Modified with DM 7.03.2014
G.U. 209 – 21.08.1967
G.U. 249 – 24.10.1995
G.U. 288 – 11.12.1995
G.U. 217 – 16.09.1996
G.U. 93 – 21.04.2004
G.U. 157 – 07.07.2008
G.U. 223 – 23.09.2008
G.U. 249 – 23.10.2010
G.U. 93 – 22.04.2011
G.U. 295 – 20.12.2011
Published on the official Mipaaf site
Sezione Qualità e Sicurezza Vini DOP e IGP
Published on the official Mipaaf site
Sezione Qualità e Sicurezza Vini DOP e IGP

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Articles: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10


Article 1
Wine denominations

1.1. The Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin (D.O.C.G.) “Franciacorta” (referred to below, as “Franciacorta”) is reserved for wines produced exclusively by the process of re-fermentation in the bottle, and the removal of deposits by way of disgorgement, as complies with the conditions and requirements prescribed in this document.
1.2. The permitted typologies are described below:

  • "Franciacorta";
  • "Franciacorta" Satèn;
  • "Franciacorta" Rosé;
  • "Franciacorta" millesimato;
  • "Franciacorta" riserva.

Article 2
Ampelographical base

2.1. The wines referred to in art. 1 must be produced from grapes grown in vineyards located on the winery property, and must have the following ampelographic composition: Chardonnay and/or Pinot Noir; a maximum of 50% Pinot Bianco may be added to the blend.
2.2. In the production of “Franciacorta” Rosé, the Pinot Noir grape must comprise at least 25% of the total blend.
2.3. The production of Franciacorta Satèn does not permit use of the Pinot Noir grape.

Article 3
Grape production zone

The grape production zone, intended for the production of Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin (D.O.C.G.) “Franciacorta” wine, falls under the province of Brescia, and includes the land dedicated to quality in the entire territory of the districts of Paratico, Capriolo, Adro, Erbusco, Cortefranca, Iseo, Ome, Monticelli Brusati, Rodengo Saiano, Paderno Franciacorta, Passirano, Provaglio d’Iseo, Cellatica and Gussago, as well as the districts of Cologne, Coccaglio, Rovato and Cazzago S. Martino which are located north of the former state road n. 573 and n. 11 and are part of the Brescia district.

This zone is defined as such:
From the shore of Lake Iseo continues the border of the town of Paratico, until it meets with the border of the town of Capriolo, which continues until it reaches the border of the town of Adro. Following south along the border of Adro, the border meets with the boundary of the city of Erbusco, and crosses the intersection of the town of Cologne which continues south until reaching the state of Bergamo-Brescia. This boundary then continues until the border of the town of Castegnato. Continuing north along the border of Castegnato, the boundary meets with the old state highway n.11, which travels to the east, passing through the small town of Mandolossa and continuing along the same highway to the small town of Scuole. From there, it follows the road that goes north toward Badia up to an altitude of 133. It then follows the road that meets the hill of S. Anna to the east, and continues in a northeast direction, passing through an elevation of 136.9-138.8-140.2-150-160-157.9, until it meets with the Brescia-Cellatrica road, in the direction of Cellatica. At an elevation of 139.9, the boundary meets first with the municipal boundary of Cellatica, and then with that of Gussago, encompassing the entire territory of these two towns, and continues before the border of the town of Brione, and later to Polaveno, and Lake Iseo. From Lake Iseo, it continues along the shore of the lake to Paratico.

The following territory is excluded from the production zone previously defined:
Starting from the border of the province of Brescia, to the west, near highway A4 and the Oglio River, between the municipal boundaries of Palazzolo sull’Oglio and Capriolo, continues the border of the town of Capriolo until it intersects with the railway line which travels north to Paratico station, and then with the former state road n. 469, the main road n. 12 at an altitude of 197; It meets with the provincial road n. 12 at an altitude of 191, with the exclusion of the hill of Cascina Beloardo, and passes through altitudes 189.9-188-195.2, intersecting the provincial road n.11 South until the San Pietro Church in Lamosa, where it takes the cart track to Segaboli, passing through altitudes 192.3-189.5-187.5-198. It then continues to Il Mulino, the Provaglio train station, and coincides with the railway line to the north, until meeting, prior to the town of Iseo, the former s.s. 510, that follows the path until you reach the border town of Sulzano. It travels north along this road until reaching the lake where it then follows the shore of Lake Iseo up to Paratico, where it then meets, near Sarnico, with the boundary of the province of Brescia, which continues to the border of the city of Capriolo.

Article 4
Viticultural standards

4.1. Natural environmental conditions.
The environmental conditions of the vineyards for the production of “Franciacorta” wines must be those which are considered normal or typical of the area, and which are able to confer specific characteristics of quality to the grapes.
The vines must be located on land considered suitable for the production of the denomination of origin in question.
The production of all “Franciacorta” wines excludes land that is insufficiently sunny or located on the valley floor, or in wetlands located adjacent to rivers, streams, and stagnant water, as described in the mapping system of the Brescia province (SIT).
For the rivers and areas with stagnant waters, all new plants and replanted vines should maintain a ‘buffer zone’ or spacing of at least 10 meters.
They are also to exclude all zones and areas located at an altitude of more than 550 meters above sea level, as these conditions are not suitable for the proper maturation of grapes for “Franciacorta” designated wines.

4.2. Vine density.
For new plants and replanted vines, the vine density may not be less than 4500 vines per hectare with a maximum distance of 2.50 meters between the rows, with the exception of terraced areas or those with a high gradient, in which case the vine density may not be less than 2500 vines per hectare.

4.3. Farming practices.
For new plants and replanted vines, the types of farming permitted are: a single espalier with upward growth and long or short pruning in a single vegetative plane (cane or cordon pruned).
Different types of farming are allowed in the terraces if they are likely to improve the management of vineyards without having negative effects on the characteristics of the grapes.

4.4. Supportive interventions.
Irrigation is permitted to support or aid vines.

4.5. Yield per hectare and minimum alcoholic strength.
4.5.1 For all wines referred to in art. 1, the maximum grape production is 10 tons per hectare, and the total alcoholic strength by volume is a minimum of 9.5%.
The harvesting and transporting of grapes to be pressed must be performed in such a way so as not to compromise the integrity of the berry. In particular, only hand-picking of grapes is permitted, and grapes may be placed in crates or boxes of different capacities, but not exceeding 0.2 tons, and with a height limit of the mass that must not exceed 40 cm.
The yield for the first two years, calculated from the first wine-producing vintage following the planting of the vineyard, is less than the maximum set forth in this document and is defined below:
  • First year 0 ton / ha.;
  • Second year 4 ton/ha.
These limits on yields should be respected, notwithstanding the possibility of excess production, in which 20% can be used for the production of DOC “Curtefranca” or IGT “Sebino”.

4.5.2 Annually, before harvest the region of Lombardy, by decree, and as proposed by the Consorzio di tutela, may change the maximum wine yield classified as capable of becoming “Franciacorta,” and possibly the maximum grape yield per hectare from that stipulated in this document, taking account of particular environmental conditions, or to achieve market balance and, in doing so, must immediately inform the control body.

4.5.3 In climatically favorable years, the base wine obtained from an amount of grapes that exceeds the production limit may be claimed up to a maximum of 20%, and called harvest reserve, and is regulated according to article 5.4 and unable to further exceed this new limit. In a case where the winery, despite having claimed a grape production up to 20% above the maximum limit of 10 t/ha, does not want to put aside the reserve wine, they should proceed to reduce the must yield through a partial pressing of the grapes so as not to exceed the maximum production per hectare of 65 hl of base wine; the winery is entitled to claim the additional must obtained by the complete pressing of the grapes, provided up to a maximum of 65% of the finished wine is allocated to the production of Curtefranca DOC or Sebino IGT.

4.6 Harvest and cellar selections.
Grapes from vineyards registered under the Denomination of Controlled and Guaranteed Origin (D.O.C.G.) “Franciacorta” may be used, with the harvest selection, with total or partial reference to the winegrowing areas registered separately for Denominazione di Origine Controllata (D.O.C.) “Curtefranca” white, but not vice versa. It is also permitted to decide in the cellar, and to be carried out before initial processing and particularly before the addition of the liqueur de tirage, to transition any batch of base wine designated as “Franciacorta” to DOC Curtefranca white, or IGT Sebino, but not vice versa.

Article 5
Vinification standards

5.1 Winemaking and production zone.
All winemaking operations, including bottling, tirage, processing, and secondary fermentation in the bottle, for “Franciacorta” wines must be performed within the production zone previously defined in art. 3.
In accordance with Article 8 of the Reg. CE No. 607/2009, the bottling and packaging must take place in the geographical area previously defined, to safeguard the quality and reputation, to guarantee the origin, and to ensure the effectiveness of controls.
In accordance with Article 8 of the Reg. CE n. 607/2009, to protect the vested rights of those who have traditionally performed bottling outside of the delimited production area are individual authorizations provided under the conditions laid down in Article 10, paragraph 3 and 4 of the legislative n. 61/2010 (Annex 1).
The use of oak containers is permitted for aging wine.
The transition from grapes to grape must should take place exclusively by way of direct pressing of the grapes without destemming the whole grape, with the exception of Pinot Noir grapes used in the production of rosé wine destined for Franciacorta rosé.
Taking account of traditional production methods, these operations are also permitted in the territory of the parish of S. Pancrazio di Palazzolo sull’Oglio, and the entire territory of the commune that in part comprises the delimited perimeter.

5.2 Corrections and enrichment.
Corrections and enrichment of musts and wines outlined in art. 1 are allowed within the limits and standards established by the Community and nation.

5.3 Grape / wine yield per hectare.
For all wines outlined in art. 1, the maximum yield from grape to wine base, prior to fermentation and the production of foam, is equivalent to 65%.
In the winemaking process, it is possible to produce a greater yield of the base wine, up to a maximum of 6%, which does not have the right to be called “Franciacorta” but may be used for the production of IGT “Sebino”.
If the total yield exceeds this limit (65% and its 6%) then all of the wine produced loses its right to the name “Franciacorta,” but may be used for the production of IGT “Sebino”.

5.4 Base wines.
5.4.1 The production of the base wine may be obtained from a blend of wines from multiple vintages, and as always, in accordance with the requirements prescribed in the present document.
The different grape varieties must be recorded separately in the appropriate records or register.

5.4.2 Harvest reserve wines.
5.4.2.1 Locking..
In climatically favorable vintages, the base wine obtained from an amount of grapes that exceeds the claimable grape production limit, up to a maximum of 20%, recorded separately (art. 4.6), is entitled to the name “Franciacorta” and the harvest reserve wine obtained is regulated and used as such:
  • When submitting an annual wine declaration, the authorized control body should be immediately informed of the amount of harvest reserve wine held;
  • The harvest reserve wine is locked in bulk and cannot be processed for a minimum of 12 months and must be documented through cellar records;
  • The harvest reserve wine is not permitted for the production of Franciacorta millesimato;
  • The processing of the harvest reserve wine can take place even before being released, but only after being re-classified to DOC “Curtefranca or IGT “Sebino”, which will be indicated on the label with the vintage.
5.4.2.2 Unlocking..
Unlocking can take place:
  • In climatically unfavorable vintages with noted lower yields in the vineyard or in the cellar, for an amount of harvest reserve wine to reach the maximum production of 6,500 liters per hectare not obtained during the harvest.
    In that case, any producer that has reached the maximum limit on wine yield of 6,500 liters per hectare, has no right to process the harvest reserve wine.
  • To meet market needs, by allowing wineries to process an amount of reserve wine that is established specifically by the Consorzio di tutela and in agreement with the region.
In both cases, partial or total unlocking occurs with a proposal from the recognized Consorzio di tutela, often in response to requests from producers, and is done with regional measure and under the close supervision of the authorized inspection body, and upon notice to the office of the central Inspectorate of quality protection and fraud repression of agri-food products responsible for that territory.
Producers are permitted to process harvest reserve wine for the production of “Franciacorta” within the vinification zone outlined in article 5.1, and keeping the Franciacorta name, after a minimum period of 12 months.
Therefore, producers who have not reached the maximum limit on yields of 6,500 per hectare or who need to satisfy a larger quantity wine market, can purchase the harvest reserve wine from other producers, while maintaining the Franciacorta designation, after a minimum period of 12 months.

5.5 Production of various wines.
5.5.1 Cuvée.
It is possible to produce “Franciacorta” millesimati and riserva wines, provided that the wine obtains a minimum of 85% of the referenced vintage.
If the cuvée is a vintage wine (millesimato), it is necessary to register the wine with a vintage indication.
In particular years with unfavorable climatic conditions, the Lombardy region, on a proposal from the Consorzio di tutela, may forbid the production of vintage (millesimo) Franciacorta.
For “Franciacorta” Satèn, it is required to use up to 20 g / liter of sugar for the secondary fermentation.

5.5.2 Minimum aging period.
The wines, from the date of tirage (bottling), begin a mandatory minimum period of aging on the lees until being disgorged, indicated as follows:
Minimum duration in months:
“Franciacorta” 18;
“Franciacorta” Rosé 24;
“Franciacorta” Satèn 24;
“Franciacorta” millesimato, “Franciacorta” Rosé millesimato “Franciacorta” Satèn millesimato 30;
“Franciacorta” riserva, “Franciacorta” Rosé riserva, “Franciacorta” Satèn riserva 60.
The process of tirage may begin the 1st of February following the harvest from which the younger base wine was obtained.
The production of “Franciacorta” Rosé may be obtained by a mixture of wines of different colors.

5.5.3 Disgorgement and quantities of bottles in production.
The separation of wine deposits is done solely by disgorging, either manually or mechanically, therefore, filtration is not permitted.
The wines outlined in art. 1 may be processed in vessels of nominal volume, identified as follows:
0,187, 0,375 0,500 0,750 1,500 3,000 6,000 9,000 12,000 15,000.

5.6 Bottles in production. The bottles still in production, in other words, before disgorgement, are given a crown cap bearing the logo in the following art. 7.2 and equipped with an accompanying document and certificate of physical and chemical analysis which may be traded between producers enrolled in the register of the bottlers/producers of “Franciacorta” and within the vinification zone outlined in art. 5.1. The sale of bottles in production may not occur until nine months after tirage.

Article 6
Wine characteristics

The wines described in art. 1 must meet, at the time of their release for consumption, the following characteristics:
“Franciacorta”
  • Mousse: fine, intense;
  • Color: From straw yellow more or less intense, to gold;
  • Aroma: fine, delicate, with a broad range of complex aromas and notes derived from secondary fermentation in the bottle;
  • Taste: Fruity, fresh, fine and harmonious;
  • Minimum total alcohol by volume: 11.5%;
  • Minimum total acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 14.00 g/l;
It is also permitted to include the following typological expressions: dosaggio zero, extra brut, brut, extra dry, sec and demi-sec, with respect to the limits on sugar content prescribed in the regional standards.

“Franciacorta” millesimato
  • Mousse: fine, intense;
  • Color: varying intensity of straw yellow to golden yellow;
  • Aroma: fine, delicate, with a broad range of complex aromas and notes derived from secondary fermentation in the bottle;
  • Taste: Fruity, fine and harmonious.
  • Minimum total alcohol by volume: 11.50% vol;
  • Minimum total acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 15.00 g/l.
It is also permitted to include the following typological expressions: dosaggio zero, extra brut, brut, and extra dry, with respect to the limits on sugar content prescribed in the regional standards.

“Franciacorta” riserva
  • Mousse: fine, intense;
  • Color: from straw yellow more or less intense, until golden yellow with copper hues;
  • Aroma: complex and evolved notes signature of its long aging in the bottle;
  • Taste: fruity, fine and harmonious;
  • Minimum total alcohol by volume: 11.50% vol;
  • Minimum total acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 15.00 g/l.
It is also permitted to include the following typological expressions: dosaggio zero, extra brut, and brut, with respect to the limits on sugar content prescribed in the regional standards.

“Franciacorta” Rosé
  • Mousse: fine, intense;
  • Color: pink of varying intensity;
  • Aroma: fine, delicate, broad, complex, with typical notes of Pinot Noir and of the secondary fermentation in the bottle;
  • Taste: fruity, fresh, fine and harmonious;
  • Minimum total alcohol by volume: 11.50% vol;
  • Minimum total acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 15.00 g/l.
It is also permitted to include the following typological expressions: dosaggio zero, extra brut, brut, extra dry, sec and demi-sec, with respect to the limits on sugar content prescribed in the regional standards.

"Franciacorta" rosé millesimato
  • Mousse: fine, intense;
  • Color: pink of varying intensity with possible copper hues;
  • Aroma: a broad range of complex aromas, with typical notes of Pinot Noir and of the secondary fermentation in the bottle;
  • Taste: Fruity, fresh, fine and harmonious;
  • Minimum total alcohol by volume: 11.50% vol;
  • Minimum total acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 15.00 g/l.
It is also permitted to include the following typological expressions: dosaggio zero, extra brut, brut, and extra dry, with respect to the limits on sugar content prescribed in the regional standards.

“Franciacorta” rosé riserva
  • Mousse: fine, intense;
  • Color: pink of varying intensity with possible copper hues.
  • Aroma: complex, evolved with typical notes of Pinot Noir and bouquet aromas derived from long aging in bottle;
  • Taste: Fruity, fresh, fine and harmonious;
  • Minimum total alcohol by volume: 11.50% vol;
  • Minimum total acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 15.00 g/l.
It is also permitted to include the following typological expressions: dosaggio zero, extra brut, and brut, with respect to the limits on sugar content prescribed in the regional standards.

“Franciacorta” Satèn
  • Mousse: Persistent, creamy;
  • Color: Intense straw yellow;
  • Aroma: fine, delicate, with notes derived from secondary fermentation in the bottle;
  • Taste: Fruity, creamy, fine and harmonious;
  • Total minimum alcohol: 11.50% vol;
  • Total minimum acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 14.50 g/l;
  • Maximum pressure: 5 atm.
The only typology permitted is a brut style.

“Franciacorta» satèn millesimato
  • Mousse: Persistent, creamy;
  • Color: From a more or less intense straw yellow to golden yellow;
  • Aroma: fine, and complex with notes derived from the secondary fermentation in the bottle;
  • Taste: Fruity, creamy, fine and harmonious;
  • Total minimum alcohol: 11.50% vol;
  • Total minimum acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 14,50 g/l;
  • Maximum pressure: 5 atm.
The only typology permitted is a brut style.

«Franciacorta» Satèn Riserva
  • Mousse: Persistent, creamy;
  • Color: Golden yellow of varying intensity;
  • Aroma: complex and evolved notes signature of its long aging in the bottle;
  • Taste: Fruity, fine and harmonious;
  • Total minimum alcohol by volume: 11.50% vol;
  • Total minimum acid: 5.00 g/l;
  • Minimum non-reducing extract: 15.00 g/l.
  • Maximum pressure: 5 atm.
The only typology permitted is a brut style.
It is in the power of the Ministry of Agriculture to modify, by decree, the limits on total acid and extract minimum of the wines outlined in art. 1.

Article 7
Designation and presentation

7.1 All typological expressions and flavor qualifications must appear on the label in print no larger in height or dimension than that which is used for the name “Franciacorta”.

7.2 Optional information.
These are consistent with the existing regional and national standards.
In labelling, designation and presentation of wines listed in art. 1 it is permitted to use the term ‘riserva’. The term ‘riserva’ is allowed for vintage wines that have spent a period of at least 60 months aging on the lees. The term ‘riserva’ must be accompanied by the vintage of the grape harvest. The use of the term DOCG, also written in full, is to be understood as optional in accordance with art. 59 of the Reg. (CE) n. 607/2009. The use of indications that refer to names, including company and brand names, are permitted, under the condition that they do not mislead consumers.
Franciacorta millesimato must include the year of grape harvest.
The name “Franciacorta” is reserved exclusively through the use of a logo or collective mark, of any size and color, registered November 22, 1991 and is owned by collective right to all producers entered in the register of the bottlers of “Franciacorta” and consisting of a letter “F” (uppercase F), with a crenellated top.

7.3 Prohibited information.
For Franciacorta Rosé it is not permitted to use any alternative description or color reference.
In labeling all Franciacorta it is prohibited to specify the processing method, classic method, traditional method, method of re-fermentation in the bottle and use of the term “vino spumante” or sparkling wine.
The reference to a geographical indication or place names of administrative units, villages, areas, zones, localities or vineyards is prohibited. This does not pertain to place names included in the names of vineyards and producers.
With the exception of Franciacorta millesimati and Franciacorta riserva, it is prohibited to indicate the year in which the grapes were harvested.

Article 8
Packaging

8.1 Nominal volumes.
Wines discussed in article 1 may be released for consumption in the formats outlined in article 5.5.3.
The wines discussed in art. 1 may be released for consumption only in containers of nominal volumes identified as follows: 0.187 L (for export only) 0.375, 0.500 (for export only) 0.750, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0 (L). The use of traditional containers of 9.0, 12.0, and 15.0 (L) capacities is also permitted.

8.2 Capping and containers.
The wines of “Franciacorta” are stoppered with a cork, which, on the visible part sticking out of the neck, displays the “Franciacorta” inscription, and is anchored with the traditional wire cage and metal plate.

Article 9
Connection to the geographical environment

A) Information about the geographical area.
1) Natural or environmental factors relevant to the connection
The territory of Franciacorta is bordered to the east by rocky hills and the moraine of Rodengo, Ome, Gussago and Cellatica, to the north by the southern shores of Lake Iseo and by the last offshoots of the Rhaetian Alps, to the west by the Oglio River and finally, to the south by Mount Orfano. The territory consists of a large moraine amphitheater, formed during the glacial period of the secondary and tertiary geological eras through the expansion and retraction of a large glacier coming from Valcamonica, and characterized by extreme morphological and geological complexity. A common element of most soils of Franciacorta is therefore their glacial origin, which determines the main soil characteristics: allochthonous genesis, reasonable depth, good drainage, and a high water supply. The soils of Franciacorta are therefore particularly suited to grape growing. Without prejudice to the general characteristics of the area, there is significant variability in the pedo-landscape that determines different vegeto-productive behaviors, diverse dynamics of grape maturation, and unique sensory characteristics in the base wine. With the zoning study that was completed in the 90s, we have identified six different vocational units. This variability forms the basis for the art of creating the cuvée, specifically, the process of blending the base wines from specific units with distinct soils and landscapes. To protect the quality of the grapes produced, this document provides for certain exclusions within the area described above, including vineyards lying at altitudes greater than 550 m above sea level, and at a distance from rivers and areas of permanent stagnation under 10 meters.
  • The region of Franciacorta falls under an insubric mesoclimate, and benefits from characteristics of the mediterranean, resulting in relatively mild winters, summers that are not too hot, and reasonable daily and annual ranges in temperature.
Other factors operate at the meso-scale level and contribute to determining precipitation and wind patterns, ensuring a regular water supply and the absence of excess humidity:
  • Proximity to the plains, which is reflected in a number of phenomena such as thermal inversions and breeze circulation.
  • Proximity to Lake Iseo, which has characteristic effects that manifest in the mitigation of average temperatures, decreased risk of frost, and the intensification of rainfall and wind speeds.
  • Presence to the north of the groove of the valley walls which delimit the area around the lake and that of Valcamonica, with effects on the wind field and precipitation.
Rainfall events are particularly common during the autumn and spring, and the annual rainfall is approximately 1000 mm. During the growing season, the average rainfall is adequate and generally well-distributed, between 500 and 600 mm. Temperatures, expressed on Winkler’s bioclimatic index, are between 1,800 and 2,300 degree days, in relation to the elevation, exposure and effects of the lake. These values allow for the achievement of an adequate ripening of the grapes.

2) Human factors relevant to the connection
The growing of grapevines occurred spontaneously during prehistoric times: witness is given by the discovery of seeds near the zone of Provaglio d’Iseo, where there were probably lake-dwelling settlements.
There are numerous subsequent testimonies regarding the predilection for grape growing in this area, among which are the experiences of the monks who inhabited the monastic courts in the area, and were expempted from the payment of custom duties through reclaiming and cultivating the land. It was the monks who were responsible for naming the area “franchae curtes,” or later, Franciacorta.
The current territory as defined in art. 3 of this document was already described and delimited in the act of the Doge Francesco Foscari in 1429, when the area was under the rule of Serenissima.
Over the centuries, viticulture has always maintained an important role in the region’s agricultural economy through to the end of the 1960s, when, with the establishment of the DOC system, a type of viticultural renaissance began, allowing grape growing to become the main agricultural activity in Franciacorta. The deep connection between wine and its territory is summarized in the fact that both are identified, along with the production method, in the single term ‘Franciacorta’.

Ampelographic base
Traditionally, viticulture in Franciacorta was conducted by growing various local grapes, both red and white. With the birth of the DOC system, particularly for sparkling wine, Pinot, known then as Pinot chardonnay, was identified as the most suitable grape variety. It was not until 1980 with official ampelographic research that the disctinction between two varieties, Pinot Blanc and Chardonnay, was made clear. These two grapes are still the only ones which may be used, together with Pinot Noir, in the production of Franciacorta.

Farming practices, planting distances and pruning systems
The training system traditionally used was the pergola bresciana, which was gradually replaced by modern training systems using an espalier with upward vegetative growth, and Guyot or cordon pruned, allowing for a better vegeto-productive balance and adequate control of production within the limits set by this document.

Wine production practices
Those practices traditionally used for the production of wine through refermentation in the bottled have evolved over time in keeping with the techno-scientific acquisitions and the goal of improving quality. Above all, it is important to point out, for example, the direct pressing of grapes without destemming, a technique which is very important to ensure the proper division of the musts.

B) Information on the quality or characteristics of the product fundamentally or exclusively attributable to the geographical environment.
The vast heterogeneity of the area in terms of soil composition and microclimate is reflected in the kinetic differences in grape maturation and the extremely diversified sensory profile of the base wines, which allow for the creation of a cuvée of great complexity.
The acid content of the grapes and the musts is sufficiently high, and the pH adjusts to the technological needs of the wine during the refermentation in the bottle. The daily temperature guarantees the preservation of varietal aromatic content.
The wine’s sensory profile is enriched during the aging process following the secondary fermentation.
Franciacorta wines are generally straw yellow, with possible greenish or golden to copper hues in the Riserva version. The bubbles are fine and persistent, and the bouquet has the characteristic notes of refermentation in the bottle, with hints of bread and yeast which are enriched by subtle notes of citrus and dried fruit (almond, hazelnut, dry white fig) making the sensory profile clearly recognizable as a product of the territory. The flavor is savory, fresh, fine and harmonious.

C) Description of the causal interaction between details referred to in point A) and those in point B).
The Franciacorta region is situated on the extreme northern edge of the Po Valley, and nestled within the alpine system close to Lake Iseo. The climate is similar in many ways to that of the Po Valley, but with beneficial effects due to the presence of the lake. During the summer, the heat is tempered by the cool currents that blow down the passageway of Valcamonica, and in the winter, the lake serves to mitigate temperatures by emitting heat accumulated during the previous season. From a pedological standpoint, the territory of Franciacorta is extremely heterogeneous, and can be classified into six vocational units: thin morainic soils, characteristed by thin soils located on the ridges and the steepest parts of the slopes of the morainic hills. In these areas, grapes have lower production potential and are more likely to ripen early. Sensory analysis shows wines with an aromatic, spicy-vegetal quality and great complexity come from these areas; fine deposits, which are comprised of deep soils with a loamy texture, located in areas of glacial retreat and lake sediment. Floral notes also prevail in wines from these areas; fluvio-glacial soils are characterized by medium deep soils and coarse structure, located in areas significantly impacted by the Sebino glacier, and allowing for a higher production potential and decreased likeliness for grapes to ripen early. These wines are of medium complexity, and have dominant flavors of dry fruit; colluviums, which are identified by their deep soils, situated on both sides of the terrace as well as in areas at the base of the foothills and limestone hill areas, and deep morainic soils, with medium to moderately fine textures which coincides with the outer ampitheater of a series of morainic hills. These areas produce wines reminiscent of dry fruit and displaying spicy-vegetal notes. Two behaviors have been identified in relation to production potential and acid levels in colluvial soils: in the flatland area (distal colluviums) the production potential and acid levels are significantly higher than those on terraced slopes (terraced colluviums).
The spontaneous occurence of vines during the prehistoric era is proof that this area is suited for grape growing. Proof of this is provided by the discovery of prehistoric grapeseeds and archaeological material found throughout the area, as well as various testimonies from classical authors, from Pliny to Columella to Virgil. We also know of people who settled in Franciacorta through historical testimonies: the Gallic Cenomani, the Romans, the Lombards. Monastic documents from the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries that describe the cultural diffusion and spreading of the vine are proof of its continuity, and are strengthened by significant archaelogical finds in the area that are reflective of ancient viticultural practices from the late Middle Ages in Franciacorta. The name Franzacurta appeared for the first time in 1277, in an ordinance of the 8th Book of the States of Brescia, which concerned an injunction made to the municipalities of Gussago and Rodengo for repair of a bridge over the Mella River in the town of Mandolossa: “Pro utilitate Sua propria et omnium amicorum Franzacurta”. Those who received the order knew of the territories of Franciacorta that would receive the work, and thus it is likely that there was a more ancient name, probably related to the power of the monastic courts (Rodengo, Provaglio, Rovato), founded by cluniacensi and free from paying tithe to the bishop of Brescia. These free or open courts (corti franche o libere) were known, in latin at the time, as francae curtae. Recent studies indicate that this freedom was related to goods which passed through Franciacorta to the free city of Brescia, duty-free, in exchange for the maintenance of the road leading from Brescia to Iseo, and from there along the lake, the supply of iron from Valcamonica. Whatever the origin of the “freedom” it is certainly the latin “francae” and the role of the monasteries “curtae” that are responsible for the origin of the name.
In the early fifteenth century, thanks to a extended period of stability, the area saw significant growth of agricultural activities and investment of new capital into wine production in the hilly and suburban areas of Franciacorta, thanks to the diffusion of new techniques for planting and the pergola system. The interconnectedness between the history, culture, and wine of Franciacorta has made it one of the first in the world to publish a work on the technical preparation of wines that ferment naturally in the bottle and its effects on the human body. Printed in Italy in 1570, the text by Brescian doctor Gerolamo Conforti, with the title “Libellus de vino mordaci,” preceded the insight of the illustrious abbot Dom Perignon, and played a prominent role in the widespread diffusion in the consumption of this lively and bubbly wine. This is irrefutably evidence of an ancient and deep interconnectedness between this territory and Franciacorta.
Among the most recent testimonies was that of Gabriele Rosa, who in his treatise about the wines of 1852 remembers how the white wines of Franciacorta were most excellent, fresh and elegant (“eccellentissimi, racenti e garbi”).
It was in 1967 that the DOC Franciacorta was established as one of the first DOCs in Italy, and which included sparkling wine. The latter denomination of controlled and guaranteed origin (D.O.C.G.), which came in 1995, is dedicated specifically to recognizing the top of the quality pyramid of italian wine. The DOCG designation signalled a turning point in the increased recognition of the wine, and demonstrated an inextricable link between the wine and its territory, having chosen the term Franciacorta as the single term to identify the region, the wine, and the processing method.

Article 10
Reference to the control structure


VALORITALIA S.r.l.
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The company “Valoritalia S.r.l” is the controlling body authorized by The Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, under article 13 of legislative decree n. 61/2010 (Annex 1), which carries out the annual verification of compliance with the provisions of this document, in accordance with article 25, paragraph. 1, 1° clause, letters a) and c), and article 26 of Reg. CE n. 607/2009, for products qualifying for the PDO, through a method of combined controls (systematic and random) over the entire chain of production (viticulture, production, packaging), in accordance with the previously cited article 25, par. 1, 2° clause.
In particular, this verification is carried out with respect to a pre-determined control plan, approved by the Ministry, and conforming to the format approved by the Ministerial Decree of 14 June 2012, published in G.U. n. 150 of 29.06.2012 (Annex 2).